Special issue “Advances in additive manufacturing: modeling, design, and application”

Special Issue Editors

https://doi.org/10.33263/Materials21.048048


Mohammad Elahinia ,

* Correspondence: melahinia@utoledo.edu

Dynamic and Smart Systems Laboratory, Mechanical Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Department, The University of Toledo, OH 43606, United States

Interests: developing dynamic models and designing control systems for smart and active materials; additive manufacturing of functional materials such as shape memory alloys for aerospace and biomedical application.


Mohammadreza Nematollahi ,

* Correspondence: mnemato@urockets.toledo.edu

Dynamic and Smart Systems Laboratory, Mechanical Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Department, The University of Toledo, OH 43606, United States

Interests: 3d printing; additive manufacturing; design intelligent systems and robotics; materials characterization; materials science; mechanical engineering; robotic rehabilitation; robotic surgery; shape memory alloys; smart materials and structures.


Nima Shamsaei ,

* Correspondence: shamsaei@auburn.edu

National Center for Additive Manufacturing Excellence (NCAME), Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, United States

Interests: Additive Manufacturing (AM), 3D Printing, Fatigue & Fracture, Failure Analysis, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Microstructure-Property Relationships, Laser Materials Processing, Experimental Mechanics, Durability and Reliability, Mechanical Design.


Special Issue Information

Aim and Scope: Additive Manufacturing (AM) is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry. Building parts layer by layer makes fabrication of geometries which were impossible otherwise. Freedom of fabrication, rapid and low-cost prototyping, and reduction in material waste are only a few of advantages that AM offers to many industries from biomedical to aeronautics. Hence, AM is getting lots of interest over the past few years. These combined with lower cost of 3d printers is making this pace even faster. To keep up with the advancements in AM, this special issue aims to publish high quality research articles in the field of additive manufacturing and its related topics. This includes but not limited to alloy design for AM, new AM technologies and process optimization, process-microstructure-property, characterization of AM parts, modeling AM processes, topology optimization, fatigue, fracture, and failure analysis, tailoring properties, and functionally graded materials through AM. New applications are welcome, as well.

Subtopics: New materials and techniques for additive manufacturing; Process optimization; Characterization of additively manufactured parts; Modeling of AM processes; Design and topology optimization for AM; Emerging applications using AM techniques; Fatigue and failure of additively manufactured parts.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing; material science; characterization; implants; biomedical; design; optimization; modeling.


Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020


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Published papers

This special issue is now open for submission.


Planned Papers

(1) Opportunities of Analytical Modeling in Metal Additive Manufacturing

Nandana Menon and Amrita Basak *

The Pennsylvania State University, 233 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802, Ph: 814-863-1323, Email: aub1526@psu.edu

Abstract

Metal additive manufacturing has become an emerging manufacturing technology as it enables fabrication of complex shaped 3D components by additive layer-upon-layer process directly from metal powders using computer aided design model. However, the properties of the build parts largely depend on the macro- and microstructure of the component, such as voids, grain size, phase composition, crystal orientation among others. Enormous experimental efforts are directed to understand the process-structure-properties relationships in metal AM. Additionally, high-fidelity simulation models are also available to develop physical understanding of the metal AM process. However, the experimental and the high-fidelity methods are generally expensive and cannot therefore be used towards developing online control of metal AM processes. The objective of this review is to summarize the progress made till date on analytical modeling of AM processes with prediction capabilities including thermal profile, layer properties, part porosity, grain size, and residual stress among others. Such models when adequately calibrated are extremely prolific in developing an understanding of the process maps as well as designing sophisticated autonomous control of metal AM processes.


(2) Selective Laser Sintering 3D Printing – An Overview of the Technology and Pharmaceutical Applications

Naseem A. Charoo1, Sogra F. Barakh Ali2,Eman M. Mohamed2,3, Mathew A. Kuttolamadom4, Tanil Ozkan5, Mansoor A. Khan2 and Ziyaur Rahman2*

1-Zeino Pharma FZ LLC, 703- HQ Complex-North Tower, Dubai Science Park, Dubai, UAE

2-Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

3- Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62514, Egypt.

4-Engineering Technology & Industrial Distribution, College of Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA

5-Dover Precision Components, Woodlands, TX, USA *-Corresponding author: rahman@tamu.edu; Tel.: +979-436-0873

Abstract

Food and Drug Administration has approved a drug product (Spritam®) and many medical devices manufactured by 3D printing processes for human use. There is tremendous potential to print personalized medicines using 3D printing. Many 3D printing methods have been reported in the literature for pharmaceutical applications. Notable among them is fused deposition modelling (FDM), stereolithography, binder jetting and selective laser sintering (SLS). Each printing process is unique in terms of raw materials requirement and characteristics of printed dosage forms. FDM has been most extensively reported for pharmaceutical applications. On the other hand, SLS printing method has remained least explored for pharmaceutical applications. This review provides an overview of the SLS printing method, excipient requirements, process monitoring, quality defects, regulatory aspects and potential pharmaceutical applications.


(3) A review of the structural integrity of 3D printed virgin and recycled ABS and PP compounds

Daniele Rigon, Mauro Ricotta, Giovanni Meneghetti

University of Padova, Department of Industrial Engineering, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, Italy, e-mail: giovanni.meneghetti@unipd.it

Abstract

Polymers are adopted in many engineering applications of different industrial sectors thanks to their relevant low-cost manufacturing processes and the excellent physical and chemical properties combined with adequate mechanical properties for structural components. However, the environment, health, and economic impacts of the huge amount of plastic waste impose to increase the use of recycled polymers and of manufacturing processes combined with structural optimization techniques that minimize the waste of raw material, such as 3D printing (or Additive Manufacturing, AM). In light of this, the replacement of virgin plastic components with recycled and optimized 3D-printed ones, requires to withstand the service static and cyclic loadings. The present paper presents a bibliographic review concerning the structural integrity of additively manufactured virgin and recycled plastics and compounds, with special regards to ABS and PP+CaCO3/glass fiber compound. In particular, the review of the literature regarding the two considered materials will be presented by focusing on the influence of the 3D-printing process parameters on their resulting mechanical and fatigue properties [1–3]. Finally, a comparison between the results found in the literature of 3D-printed and traditionally manufactured polymers will be reported [4,5].

[1]         Ziemian C, Sharma M, Ziemi S. Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts Fabricated by Fused Deposition Modelling. Mech. Eng., InTech; 2012. https://doi.org/10.5772/34233.

[2]         Ziemian S, Okwara M, Ziemian CW. Tensile and fatigue behavior of layered acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Rapid Prototyp J 2015;21:270–8. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-09-2013-0086.

[3]         Carneiro OS, Silva AF, Gomes R. Fused deposition modeling with polypropylene. Mater Des 2015;83:768–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.053.

[4]         Meneghetti G, Ricotta M, Colombera G, Fusca M. The influence of reinforcement on fatigue behaviour of a polypropylene composite. ECCM 2012 – Compos Venice, Proc 15th Eur Conf Compos Mater 2012:24–8.

[5]         Fischer M, Schöppner V. Fatigue Behavior of FDM Parts Manufactured with Ultem 9085. JOM 2017;69:563–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-016-2197-2.


(4) Improving Void Content and Anisotropy in Additively Manufactured Parts via Core-Shell Filaments

Jafar Ghorbani and Mehran Tehrani*
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States
**Walker Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States
Corresponding Author: Mehran Tehrani tehrani@utexas.edu
Abstract
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has been mainly utilized for prototyping. To enable the use of FFF for functional parts, this paper reports an approach for improving interlayer adhesion and void reduction via a core-shell composite filament of Polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). A PLA coating was formed on the ABS filaments via a dip-coating process. The performance of the core-shell filaments was investigated by optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile tests. Optical microscopy examination indicated a low void fraction in the FFF coupons. Further, the immiscibility of PLA and ABS resulted in PLA remaining in the interfaces between the beads after printing. Compared with the pure ABS parts, parts made using the core-shell filaments achieved a higher strength in the Z-direction. Several unusual failure mechanisms were observed and discussed. It is shown that using core-shell filaments brings the ubiquitous and inexpensive FFF technology one step closer to end-use parts.


(5) A Comparative Study about Topology Optimization and Generative Design in Additive Manufacturing

Ahmet Mustafa Kangal 1, Binnur Sağbaş 2

1   Yildiz Technical University Mechanical Engineering Department, Istanbul Turkey; ahmetmustafakangal@gmail.com  

2   Yildiz Technical University Mechanical Engineering Department, Istanbul Turkey; bsagbas@gmail.com

Abstract

Manufacturing industries and investors in the aerospace area have been in search of improving techniques to achieve lower cost, weight, energy consumption, the expanded capability of them. Conventional and advanced methods in manufacturing are used with some optimization techniques in the aerospace industry to produce lightweight parts with cost-performance efficiency. Also, the usage of plastic parts is increasing in aerospace applications. So, conventional metal parts have been gradually replaced by optimized plastic/metal parts in the aerospace industry with the help of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and advanced optimization techniques such as topology optimization (TO) and generative design (GD). In this area, AM is the most effective manufacturing technology by its excellent capability to generate complex geometries with less material waste and less leading time compared with the conventional methods. In this study, it is aimed to define the capacity of TO and GD methods for decreasing the weight of aerospace parts.  The workpiece was designed as a simple bearing model of armrest for the passenger seat. TO and GD methods were used for generating new, lightweight models, and these models build-up by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) desktop type 3D printer. ABS and PLA materials were used for generating 3D geometries. After a comparison of the results, it is recorded that GD presents more realistic results, and it saves weight 31,3 % for ABS, 40,4% for PLA material.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, generative design, topology optimization, FDM


(6) Electronic Structure Engineering in Prussian Blue and Its Analogue Derived Catalysts for Electrochemical Water Splitting

Baghendra Singh, Arindam Indra*

Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, UP-221005, India

*correspondence: arindam.chy@iitbhu.ac.in

Abstract: The production of sustainable, eco-friendly and clean energy is highly demanded to replace the fossil fuel resources. Electrochemical water splitting provides an attractive way for the production of sustainable and clean energy. In this respect, Prussian blue analogue (PBA) derived catalysts have taken immense attention due to their facile, robust and cost effective synthesis, highly porous structure and designed morphology. A number of PBA derived catalysts have been demonstrated with exposed facets, porous structure, high electrochemical surface area, improved electron transport and accessible catalytic sites for the excellent electrochemical water splitting. In this minireview, we have discussed the tuning of electronic as well as interfacial properties in PBA derived catalysts for the enhanced electrochemical performance. Designing of PBA derived catalysts by electronic engineering (heteroatom doping, multi-metallic composition, vacancy engineering) and interface engineering (surface overlayer, introduction of conductive substances, self-supported catalysts) for the improved electrochemical water splitting have been discussed in details.


(7) Novel Stainless Steel – Tricalcium Phosphate Biocomposite by binder jet additive manufacturing process for bone implant applications: Manufacturing and In-Vitro studies

John Ruprecht1, Jooyoung Lee2, Karleen Doering2, Bethany Haus2, Eryn Zuiker2, Mehedi Hasan2, Michael Bentley2 and Kuldeep Agarwal1

1 Department of Automotive and Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Minnesota State University, Mankato, 56001

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, 56001

*correspondence: kuldeep.agarwal@mnsu.edu

Abstract: Traditional metals such as stainless steel, titanium and cobalt chrome are used in biomedical applications (implants, scaffolds etc.) but suffer from issues such as osseointegration and compatibility with existing bone. One way to improve traditional biomaterials is to incorporate ceramics with these metals so that their mechanical properties can be similar to cortical bones. Tricalcium phosphate is such a ceramic with properties so that it can be used in human body. This research explores the use of binder jetting based additive manufacturing process to create a novel bio composite made of stainless steel 316 and tricalcium phosphate. Experiments were conducted and processing parameters of binder jetting (layer thickness, sintering time, sintering temperature) were varied to study their effect on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and elastic modulus) of this biocomposite. To test the biocompatibility of the material, different compositions were aseptically inserted into the periosteum of the skull of anesthetized rats.  The material and surrounding tissues were extracted after multiple days. The tissues were analyzed with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy system (EDS). It was found that the biocomposite can be potentially used as a replacement for current biomaterials.


(8) A Review on Energy Harvesting Technologies from Non-Conventional to Conceptual

Kapil Bhatt*, Sandeep Kumar, C.C. Tripathi

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra – 136119, Haryana India

*Corresponding author: kapilbhatt@ieee.org

Abstract: Requirement of energy has always been one of the major concerns specifically in the developing countries. Energy demands increases with growing human population which causes many others conflicts. However it is undistinguishable to differentiate the actual requirements of energy and its efficient utilization around the world. With advancements in technologies novel methods to harvest energy have been invented around the world but unfortunately most of them are being recorded as concept only and are not available as an end product in market due to their several precincts associated with them. The world is still dependent on the non- conventional methods of energy harvesting which are diminishing day by day with their adverse effect on environment. In this article a comparative study of eight energy harvesting methods from non-conventional (solar, wind, thermal, hydro, piezoelectric, electromagnetic generators & bio batteries) to conceptual (Rectifier + antenna) on a common platform.

Keywords: Energy Harvesting Technologies, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Thermal energy, Piezoelectric Energy, Micro-electromagnetic generators, Bio-batteries, Rectenna.


(9) Design guidelines and process planning for selective powder deposition

Manuel Sardinha1, Samuel Magalhães2, Carlos Vicente2, Marco Leite2, Luís Reis2*
1 ADIST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049–001 Lisboa, Portugal.
2 IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 – 001 Lisboa, Portugal.

*Corresponding Author: luis.g.reis@tecnico.ulisboa.pt

Abstract: Additive manufacturing technologies are growing at an accelerated rate, being already widespread and used in many applications nowadays. The additive manufacturing of metal parts has high fixed and maintenance costs. The manufacturing of metal parts using powders through a process termed selective powder deposition is a commercial novelty and displays itself as a potential solution for metal additively manufactured parts with reduced costs and process complexity. This study aims to establish the operation requirements of a selective powder deposition machine (Figure 1), as well as to evaluate the applicability of recycled powders and process improvements, on the eco-efficiency and sustainability of additive manufactured metal parts.

Figure 1 – Commercial machine Iro3D

(10) Laser Powder-Bed Fusion of Electric Motor Laminations using Soft Magnets and Ceramic Insulators

M. A. Elbestawi* and Mostafa Yakout**

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada

Correspondence: *elbestaw@mcmaster.ca,  **mohamemy@mcmaster.ca

Abstract: The efficient production of electric motors is the cornerstone of vehicle electrification in the global automotive industry. Over the past three decades, additive manufacturing processes offer a high degree of design freedom in processing a wide range of metals and ceramics. This paper presents a novel methodology for producing electric motor laminations using the laser powder-bed fusion process. The stator and rotor laminations consist of electrical stacks of soft magnetic materials separated by thin layers of ceramic insulators. These ceramic insulators reduce eddy currents and confine them to narrow loops within each lamination stack at high-frequency operation of electric motors. The first analysis includes the optimization of the laser powder-bed fusion process for producing both soft magnetic materials and ceramic insulators. Two soft magnetic materials (ferritic stainless steel and nickel-iron alloy) are evaluated. The process parameters are optimized to minimize part defects such as pores, internal cracks, tensile residual stresses, and metallurgical deteriorations. The second part of the study is utilizing the use of multi-material laser powder-bed fusion equipment to produce electric motor laminations. The electrical resistivity, permeability, coercivity, and remanence of the electric motors produced using laser powder-bed fusion are measured. The electrical and magnetic properties of the additively manufactured motors are compared to those of the traditionally manufactured motors.


(11) Additive Manufacturing- methods, materials and medical applications

Dorota Laskowska1, Katarzyna Mitura1, Ewa Ziółkowska2, Błażej Bałasz1

1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Śniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin, Poland

2 The President Stanisław Wojciechowski State University of Applied Science in Kalisz, Nowy Świat 4, 62-800 Kalisz, Poland

Corresponding author: dorota.laskowskapl@gmial.com

Abstract: The aim of the additive manufacturing (AM) is production of physical objects by adding material layer-by-layer based on virtual geometry developed in the computer system. The main criteria for the division of additive manufacturing methods are the way to applied the layer and the type of construction material. In most projects, the choice of method is a compromise between costs and properties (e.g. physical, chemical or mechanical) the manufactured object. Currently, 3D printing methods have found application in many areas of life, including industrial design, automotive, aerospace, architecture, jewellery, medicine and veterinary medicine, bringing many innovative and revolutionary solutions. The purpose of this article is to review of the additive production methods and present the potential of medical application.